Springing at the cross-roads of the Great steppe and zones of the ancient Central Asia oases, developing at the clues of the caravan ways of the Great Silk Road, the medieval cities of the Southern Kazakhstan represented the synthesis of the nomadic traditions and settled agricultural cultures of Central Asia. The History handled most of them now only on the pages of the medieval manuscripts. And the ancient locations are marked by the yellow hills of the former fortresses and ramparts of field fortifications.
Destiny of each city is unique, the same as the man's fate. Turkestan is the case of especial interest, because the city was the biggest pearl in collier of the ancient Kazakh towns, extended from the Dzhungar mountains via Semirechye and Syr Darya steppes to Aral Sea. Turkestan also is one of rare Kazakh nowadays cities, which continuous history can be observed form the early centuries. Known in the historical records as Yasy, Shavgar and later, form the XVI century by its modern name, Turkestan was the administrative centre of the Central Asian rulers from the dynasties of the Shahs of Khoresm, Chagatai, Tamerlan and Shaibanid empires.
In the XVI-XVIII centuries Turkestan was the capital of the Kazakh Khanship. Kazakh Khans understood the geopolitical and spiritual importance of this town for unification of nomadic tribes included into the composition of the young state formation.
Turkestan and his majestic monument are connected with the idea of the Kazakh state system. This role of Turkestan is emphasized by the fact that such a significant and revered place in the course of time was turned into the pantheon of outstanding statesmen, famous scientists and poets. Such prominent historic persons as Abulkhair, Rabi'i Sultan-Begim, Zholbarys-khan, Esim-khan, Ondan-sultan (the son of Shygai-khan), Ablai-khan, Kaz dauysty Kazbek-bi and many others were buried inside this complex.
In Turkestan there were ceremonies of elevation of the Kazakh khans to the throne and the missions from the neighboring states were sent to Turkestan. But the city was not considered as only residence for Kazakh
Here the meetings of the higher Kazakh nobility were held to make decisions on the most crucial state-related matters. In spite of the fact that all-kazakh kurultais (meetings) were also held at other places of Kazakhstan (for example, in Ordabasy), namely Turkestan was chosen as the political centre of the Kazakh khanship. This town was the second Mecca for the Muslims of Central Asia, it was situated on the border of the nomadic and settled cultures, on the juncture of trade roads, it had powerful fortifications.